Barring an appeal, the suspension will begin with Tuesday night's game against visiting Boston.
Machado let his bat fly in the direction of third base after swinging at a pitch from Oakland's Fernando Abad in the eighth inning. The bat-toss came during a plate appearance in which Abad threw a tight pitch to Machado.
After the bat went soaring, both benches emptied. Machado and Abad were ejected.
It was the second time in three days that the 22-year-old Machado lost his temper. On Friday night, he screamed in the face of Oakland third baseman Josh Donaldson after being tagged in the chest.